TEMPLATE Queries

Overview

TEMPLATE queries are constructed using SQL templates.

The TEMPLATE query is an optional feature not included in the core module. To use it, the following dependency declaration must be included in your Gradle build script:

val komapperVersion: String by project
dependencies {
    implementation("org.komapper:komapper-template:$komapperVersion")
}

fromTemplate

To issue a SELECT statement, call the fromTemplate, bind, and select functions as follows:

val sql = "select * from ADDRESS where street = /*street*/'test'"
val query: Query<List<Address>> = QueryDsl.fromTemplate(sql)
    .bind("street", "STREET 10")
    .select { row: Row ->
        Address(
            row.getNotNull("address_id"),
            row.getNotNull("street"),
            row.getNotNull("version")
        )
    }

The fromTemplate function accepts a string of SQL template.

The bind function binds a value to a bind variable directive.

The select function converts a Row to any type using the given lambda expression. Row is a thin wrapper around java.sql.ResultSet and io.r2dbc.spi.Row. It has functions to retrieve values by column label or index. Note that the index starts from 0.

selectAsEntity

If you want to receive the result as a specific entity, call selectAsEntity. For the first argument, specify the entity’s metamodel. The SELECT clause in the SQL template must include columns corresponding to all properties of the entity.

In the following example, the result is received as an Address entity.

val sql = "select address_id, street, version from ADDRESS where street = /*street*/'test'"
val query: Query<List<Address>> = QueryDsl.fromTemplate(sql)
  .bind("street", "STREET 10")
  .selectAsEntity(a)

options

To customize the behavior of the query, call the options function. The options function accept a lambda expression whose parameter represents default options. Call the copy function on the parameter to change its properties:

val sql = "select * from ADDRESS where street = /*street*/'test'"
val query: Query<List<Address>> = QueryDsl.fromTemplate(sql)
    .options {
        it.copy(
            fetchSize = 100,
            queryTimeoutSeconds = 5
        )
    }
    .bind("street", "STREET 10")
    .select { row: Row ->
        Address(
            row.getNotNull("address_id"),
            row.getNotNull("street"),
            row.getNotNull("version")
        )
    }

The options that can be specified are as follows:

escapeSequence
Escape sequence specified for the LIKE predicate. The default is null to indicate the use of Dialect values.
fetchSize
Default is null to indicate that the driver value should be used.
maxRows
Default is null to indicate use of the driver’s value.
queryTimeoutSeconds
Query timeout in seconds. Default is null to indicate that the driver value should be used.
suppressLogging
Whether to suppress SQL log output. Default is false.

Properties explicitly set here will be used in preference to properties with the same name that exist in executionOptions.

executeTemplate

To issue a DML(Data Manipulation Language) statement, call the executeTemplate and bind functions as follows:

val sql = "update ADDRESS set street = /*street*/'' where address_id = /*id*/0"
val query: Query<Long> = QueryDsl.executeTemplate(sql)
    .bind("id", 15)
    .bind("street", "NY street")

The executeTemplate function accepts a string of SQL template.

The bind function binds a value to a bind variable directive.

If a duplicate key is detected during query execution, the org.komapper.core.UniqueConstraintException is thrown.

options

To customize the behavior of the query, call the options function. The options function accept a lambda expression whose parameter represents default options. Call the copy function on the parameter to change its properties:

val sql = "update ADDRESS set street = /*street*/'' where address_id = /*id*/0"
val query: Query<Long> = QueryDsl.executeTemplate(sql)
    .bind("id", 15)
    .bind("street", "NY street")
    .options {
        it.copy(
            queryTimeoutSeconds = 5
        )
    }

The options that can be specified are as follows:

escapeSequence
Escape sequence specified for the LIKE predicate. The default is null to indicate the use of Dialect values.
queryTimeoutSeconds
Query timeout in seconds. Default is null to indicate that the driver value should be used.
suppressLogging
Whether to suppress SQL log output. Default is false.

Properties explicitly set here will be used in preference to properties with the same name that exist in executionOptions.

SQL templates

In SQL template, directives such as bind variables and conditional branches are expressed as SQL comments. Therefore, you can paste a string from the SQL template into a tool such as pgAdmin to execute it.

For example, an SQL template containing a conditional branch and a bind variable is written as follows:

select name, age from person where
/*%if name != null*/
  name = /*name*/'test'
/*%end*/
order by name

In the above SQL template, if name != null is true, the following SQL is generated:

select name, age from person where name = ? order by name

Conversely, if name != null is false, the following SQL is generated:

select name, age from person order by name

Bind variable directives

To represent bind variables, use bind variable directives.

Bind variable directives are simple SQL comments enclosed in /* and */. They require test data immediately after the directive.

In the following example, /*name*/ is the bind variable directive, and the following 'test' is the test data:

where name = /*name*/'test'

Test data exists only to preserve correct SQL syntax. It is not used by the application. In the process of parsing the template, test data is removed and bind variables are resolved. Finally, the above template is converted to SQL as follows:

where name = ?

To bind a value to an IN clause, the bound value must be kotlin.collections.Iterable. In the following example, names is Iterable<String>, and the following ('a', 'b') is the test data:

where name in /*names*/('a', 'b')

To bind a Pair value to an IN clause, the bound value must be kotlin.collections.Iterable<Pair> In the following example, pairs is Iterable<Pair<String, String>>, and the following (('a', 'b'), ('c', 'd')) is the test data:

where (name, age) in /*pairs*/(('a', 'b'), ('c', 'd'))

Literal variable directives

To represent literals, use literal variable directives.

Literal variable directives are SQL comments enclosed in /*^ and */. They require test data immediately after the directive.

In the following example, /*^myLiteral*/ is the literal variable directive, and the following 'test' is the test data:

where name = /*^myLiteral*/'test'

Test data exists only to preserve correct SQL syntax. It is not used by the application. In the process of parsing the template, test data is removed and literal variables are resolved. Finally, the above template is converted to SQL as follows:

where name = 'abc'

Embedded variable directives

To embed sql fragments, use embedded variable directives.

Embedded variable directives are SQL comments enclosed in /*# and */. Unlike other variable directives, they do not require test data immediately after the directive.

In the following example, /*# orderBy */ is the embedded variable directive:

select name, age from person where age > 1 /*# orderBy */

In the example above, if the orderBy expression evaluates to order by name, the template is converted to the following SQL:

select name, age from person where age > 1 order by name

if directives

To start conditional branching, use if directives.

If directives are SQL comments enclosed in /*%if and */.

A conditional branch must begin with an if directive and end with an end directive.

In the following example, /*%if name != null*/ is the if directive:

/*%if name != null*/
  name = /*name*/'test'
/*%end*/

You can also put an else directive between an if directive and an end directive:

/*%if name != null*/
  name = /*name*/'test'
/*%else*/
  name is null
/*%end*/

for directives

To start loop processing, use for directives.

For directives are SQL comments enclosed in /*%for and */.

A loop process must begin with a for directive and end with an end directive.

In the following example, /*%for name in names */ is the for directive:

/*%for name in names */
employee_name like /* name */'hoge'
  /*%if name_has_next */
/*# "or" */
  /*%end */
/*%end*/

In the /*%for name in names */ directive, the names express an Iterable object and the name is an identifier for each element of the Iterable object.

Between the for and end directives, a special variable is available. The special variable returns a boolean value indicating whether the next iteration should be executed. The name of the special variable is a concatenation of the identifier and _has_next. In the above example, the name of the special variable is name_has_next.

end directive

To end conditional branching and loop processing, use end directives.

End directives are SQL comments expressed as /*%end*/.

Expressions

Expressions in the directives can perform the following:

  • Execution of operators
  • Property access
  • Function call
  • Class reference
  • Use of extension properties and functions

Operators

The following operators are supported. Semantics are the same as for operators in Kotlin:

  • ==
  • !=
  • >=
  • <=
  • >
  • <
  • !
  • &&
  • ||

These can be used as follows:

/*%if name != null && name.length > 0 */
  name = /*name*/'test'
/*%else*/
  name is null
/*%end*/

Property accesses

To access properties, use . or ?. as follows:

/*%if person?.name != null */
  name = /*person?.name*/'test'
/*%else*/
  name is null
/*%end*/

?. is equivalent to the safe call operator of Kotlin.

Function calls

Functions can be called as follows:

/*%if isValid(name) */
  name = /*name*/'test'
/*%else*/
  name is null
/*%end*/

Class references

You can refer to a class by using the notation @fully qualified name of the class@.

For example, if the example.Direction enum class has an element named WEST, it can be referenced as follows:

/*%if direction == @example.Direction@.WEST */
  direction = 'west'
/*%end*/

Extension properties and functions

The following extension properties and functions provided by Kotlin are available by default:

  • val CharSequence.lastIndex: Int
  • fun CharSequence.isBlank(): Boolean
  • fun CharSequence.isNotBlank(): Boolean
  • fun CharSequence.isNullOrBlank(): Boolean
  • fun CharSequence.isEmpty(): Boolean
  • fun CharSequence.isNotEmpty(): Boolean
  • fun CharSequence.isNullOrEmpty(): Boolean
  • fun CharSequence.any(): Boolean
  • fun CharSequence.none(): Boolean
/*%if name.isNotBlank() */
  name = /*name*/'test'
/*%else*/
  name is null
/*%end*/

The following extension functions defined by Komapper are also available:

  • fun String?.asPrefix(): String?
  • fun String?.asInfix(): String?
  • fun String?.asSuffix(): String?
  • fun String?.escape(): String?

For example, if you call the asPrefix function, the string "hello" becomes "hello%" and can be used in a prefix search:

where name like /*name.asPrefix()*/

Similarly, calling the asInfix function converts it to a string for an infix search, and calling the asSuffix function converts it to a string for a suffix search.

The escape function escapes special characters. For example, it converts a string "he%llo_" into a string like "he\%llo\_".